10

They are entirely interchangeable. Use whichever form you find most convenient to pronounce. If you plan on writing poetry, this interchangeability can come in handy because these forms can adapt to whatever rhythmic structure you're aiming for. ;)


10

Reduplikation- Definition Unter einer Reduplikation wird das Wiederholen von Wörtern oder Wortteilen verstanden. Dies ist aber ein allgemeiner Begriff, der unterschiedliche Reduplikationsformen beinhaltet. Insofern können auch im nicht-mundartlichen Deutsch Reduplikationen auftreten, die aber nichts nicht mit der Reduplikation alemannischer Mundarten zu tun ...


7

This is a German grammar characteristic called "Nullartikel". It basically means that, in some cases, you can leave out the (definite or indefinite) Article. Examples of when this rule is used can be found here. In this case, "Zentrum" has a more abstract meaning than the geographic center. Therefore it can be counted to the abstract ...


6

As Elena said, they are both interchangeable. However, the "-es" form sounds a bit antiquated if you use it in normal conversation. It is in fact more in use in written german, rather than in spoken german.


5

Nhd. -er hat verschiedene Quellen, die bis auf die ahd. Zeit oder weiter zurückreichen. Lehnwörter: Kaiser (ahd. keisur) von lat. caesar, Butter (mhd. buter) von gr.-lat. butyrum Lehnsuffix lat. -ārius: Müller (ahd. mullinari), Schüler (ahd. skuolāri). Immer maskulin*, ursprünglich um Ableitungen von Nomen zu bilden (Wilmanns, S. 284 f.). germ. r-Stämme: ...


4

As you said and as it is often the case with any of Heidegger's statements, I can only guess, and maybe the answer is just as simple as: Heidegger's creative and, must often puzzling or sometimes even totally weird use of language to express his thoughts (very often extremely hard to follow or even outright incomprehensible, even for a native speaker - ...


4

The verb is mitaufbauen. It's English translation is to collaborate in building sth. MyDict has some example usages: Sie werden das Dorf mitaufbauen. ( Quelle: Frankfurter Rundschau vom 26.07.2005) Derweil haben sich zwei Sozialarbeiterinnen aus dem Jugendhaus Dudenhofen spontan bereit erklärt, eine Jügesheimer Jugendgruppe mitaufbauen zu ...


4

Darüber hatte ich schon öfter nachgedacht, aber ich bin schon lange nicht mehr auf dem aktuellen Forschungsstand. Das Phänomen zieht sich in meiner Dialekt-Region durch die gesamte Konjugation: habbich, hasse, hatter, hattse, hattet, hammwer, happter, hammse; ähnlich binnich, bisse, isser ..., kommich, kommße, kommter ...; schön auch mit 'kriegen': krijjich, ...


3

There is a general rule in German that composites have to be broken down in the opposite direction they have been constructed (e.g. for hyphenation). German grammar rules simply state (§108) Zusammensetzungen und Wörter mit Präfix trennt man zwischen den einzelnen Bestandteilen. (Which simply assumes you know the original components) That means there ...


3

Historically the modal verbs derive from the perfect tense which took over a meaning referring to present time. That's why the forms of the modal verbs don't follow the normal pattern. German wissen, not exactly a modal verb, has a similar conjugation in present tense. It is connected with the Latin perfect vidi - I have seen. If you have seen something ...


3

Among other features, Canoo.net offers the analysis of the word formation (Wortbildung). You can find the analysis of the verb beschweren here: It is your first version: be + schwer + en Looking at your second version, Schwere itself is formed by adding a suffix to the adjective (aka suffixation): schwer + e Edit to add etymological information: In ...


2

This is in no way specific to the genitive. The definite article to a substantive is placed before any adjectives or other constructs that further qualify the substantive. das dicke Buch das neu durchgesehene Buch [nom, acc] des neu durchgesehene Buches [gen] dem neu durchgesehenen Buch [dat] Once you start adding further qualifications to the substantive, ...


2

The root of the term (sich zu) "beschweren" is the noun: Beschwer, die (article feminine). The noun Beschwer is a jurisdictional term which colloquial meaning in German is: Last, Beschwerung, Nachteil (burden,loading, disadvantage, hindrance, harm). A "Beschwer" is a jurisdictional negative decision or claim against a person. (sich zu) beschweren (verb) ...


2

Wenn ein Wort, das kein Nomen ist, durch Nominalisierung und ohne formale Veränderung die Wortart wechselt, redet man von Konversion. Beispiele: warten (Verb) -> Warten (Substantiv) gegenüber (Präposition) -> (mein) Gegenüber (Substantiv) jetzt (Adverb) -> das Jetzt (Substantiv) wenn, aber (Konjunktionen) -> ohne Wenn und Aber (Substantive) Dank (Nomen) ->...


2

As rogermue already pointed out, these verbs once were past tense forms: Verbs that had a shift were past tense forms gained a present tense meaning like muss/müssen are called preterite presents or Präteritopräsentien and most of these verbs are the modals that you gave. In former times, there was a difference in singular and plural for strong past tense ...


2

For a word where both -es and -s are allowed genitive forms, -es is indeed considered more poetic, but could also be interpreted as outdated as stated by Maico Heere. The Duden says that -es is preferred in constellations where the genetive is prefixed (e.g. des Tages Hitze) or within compounds with interfix-s (des Geschäftsfreundes).


2

I could not find any specific description related by vowels. I would assume Wortfamilie would be the nearest description, since all pairs of common ancestors. Tausch(en) nutzen wagen


2

Since Verabredung is a noun derived from the verb verabreden, let's look at verbs that begin with verab-. The first thing to note is that the group is very small. The pattern is not productive (in the linguistic sense; see Wikipedia). There are no new verbs being formed with verab-. verabreden, verabreichen, verabscheuen, verabschieden Interestingly, the ...


1

Die Verabredung is a noun made from the verb verabreden. The verb verabreden means to agree. You can boil it down to reden – to talk abreden, absprechen – to bargain, to negotiate So, abreden and absprechen is alternating in talk. You may draw a line to abgeben which means to pass, and abfallen which means to come loose. The prefix ab- often means ...


1

There is no word aber|kennen, i.e. the combination of aber and kennen. But if both existed (aber|kennen and ab|erkennen), you would not be able to see a difference, in writing, except from the context. Both would be written the same. When spoken, you would hear a slight difference, because ab and aber sound differently and there would probably be a slight ...


1

Singular Plural Nominativ der Apostroph die Apostrophe Genitiv des Apostrophs der Apostrophe Dativ dem Apostroph den Apostrophen Akkusativ den Apostroph die Apostrophe siehe: Duden => Hier sollte man keinen Apostroph setzen.


1

It seems to me that you may be misunderstanding parts of the sentence. In particular, you may be confused by the function of "von". It is not a possessive, but corresponds to the English "by" in a passive construction. So let us start with the essential parts. Der englische Text des Buches erschien [...] should not present any problem. You also seem to ...


1

The only name that comes to my mind is cognates, which are words that share the same etymological origin. Two cognates in the same language are also called doublets.


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