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62

You are falling into the trap laid out carefully by German Gender Mainstreaming throughout the years. No, in German a noun does not have a gender. It has a genus. This genus is a purely grammatical property defined by tradition. By default, it has nothing to do with biological sex or sociological gender. The word der Student is a masculine noun describing ...


36

What you see here is what is called Substantivierung - An adjective is elevated to a noun (dt: Substantiv) das Peinliche ("the embarrassing") is used as a noun in the sentence (after all, it is the object of the sentence) and thus has to be capitalised. The -s suffix is used in your example because of the "etwas" which enforces mixed declension.


34

I wrote a little Python script (see below) to find candidate words. It takes a dictionary and yields all uppercase words that end on ung unless: there exists a corresponding lowercase word ending on en, eln, or ern. For example bergen → Bergung, kapseln → Kapselung, mitteln → Mittlung, weigern → Weigerung. The presumed verb must at least have five letters ...


30

I think that die Zeitung fulfills the criteria.


27

The das in the first example is not an article since an article would have to come just before a noun. It's a demonstrative pronoun roughly translatable as "that", although "this/these" is more appropriate much of the time. Coincidentally, it has the same spelling and pronunciation as the article das for neuter nouns, but you should ...


24

One reason you are having difficulties finding an adequate dictionary entry is because Kärtchen is what is known as a diminutive form. One of the diminutive endings -chen or -lein, when added to nouns, makes the modified noun smaller, cuter, or (less often) laughable. (Unfortunately for many words one of the two diminutives is much more common than the other,...


22

It's not restricted to Berlin. Mahlzeit consists of Mahl (=process of eating) and Zeit (=time). So it refers to "the time when you eat" (=mealtime) and is technically not limited to lunchtime. However, it's widely used as kind of a greeting around lunchtime. So, even if you meet someone outside around lunchtime, you could say Mahlzeit. This is acceptable ...


20

"Multi" wird im Sinne von "mehrfach" oder "vielfach" benutzt, nicht im Sinne von "mehr als". Da ein "Millionär" per Definition (mindestens) eine Million Euro / Dollar / Geldeinheit oder äquivalent besitzt, erfüllt ein "Multimillionär" dieses Kriterium mehrfach, besitzt also mehrere Millionen. Der Kollege hat nur insofern Recht, als bereits 2 x 1 Million ...


20

das Abenteuer In 12th century the Old French word aventure was imported into the German language. In Middle High German it soon became aventiure and soon (still in Middle High German) v turned into b: abentiure And in New High German it turned into Abenteuer So this word has absolutely no connection to »der Abend« (the evening) or »teuer« (expensive)....


19

First of all, there is no clear scheme after which the genders of loanwords are determined (see also this question). Even with words that are in the process of being loaned right now, native speakers find it hard to agree on the gender (e.g., I have seen any gender for Blog) and even if they do, it’s hard to pinpoint the reason. But let’s have a look at ...


18

If you know the name, use the name. That’s the easy part. You can often still get away with ‘generisches Maskulinum’, i.e. Studenten, but in a university setting, i.e. where you’d actually use Student and Studentin to refer to students (instead of Schüler and Schülerin ‘pupil’ in a school or most other courses), it’s becoming rather common to use ...


17

The final "e" in "Bette" indicates the dative case and is not a plural form. It normally isn't used in contemporary German anymore, however there are some fixed expressions like "zu Hause" where it is still encountered nowadays. So Über meinem Bette. is singular and equivalent to Über meinem Bett. and the plural is Über meinen Betten.


17

Very often you have a vague idea of what you want to say, and with this idea often comes some words that have similar meanings, but still are not exactly what you want to say. So you often use their genders to find an article. And when it's wrong, you just correct it when you've found the right word. Hast du meinen Schlüsselbund gesehen? Ja, der liegt ...


16

No. However, you can use a "Nominalkompositum" (nominal composition) to achieve the same effect. Example: Flachbildfernseher The first part of this compound word is called the Determinans ("Flachbild"), it determines some kind of attribute about the following part, the Determinatum (Fernseher). Notice that "Flachbild" is a compound word in itself, but ...


16

Wie du selbst geschrieben hast: "Multi" kommt von griechisch "viel", was auch "mehr als eins" sein kann. In diesem Fall ist ein Multimillionär jemand, der "viele" Millionen besitzt, also mindestens 2. Auch für "mehr als eine Million" wären es mindestens zwei, da man von Millionen ausgeht. Die Zählschritte dabei sind 1 Million, 2 Millionen, 3 Millionen … ...


16

"Berliner" is a standard adjectival derivative of a proper geografical noun which carries the ending -er regardless of the gender of the noun: Der Berliner Raum Die Berliner Sparkasse Das Berliner Straßennetz What is more, "Berliner" is never inflected: Der Berliner Raum Des Berliner Raums Dem Berliner Raum Den Berliner Raum Same with "Wiener"...


15

You are correct in observing that German is probably the only language to still capitalise common nouns. (Note the emphasis) First of all, this is because capitalisation can only happen in scripts such as Cyrillic, Greek or Latin which distinguish between capital and lower-case letters. Why they do that can probably be traced back to Charlemagne who ...


15

The -e dative ending is heavily obsolescent. It is almost no longer used in living language. However, as is often the case (different examples), some phrases that were coined when the old -e ending was still healthy have fossilized and no longer follow the now-current rules: nach Hause; zu Hause im Zuge (dessen; der Umbaumaßnahmen; der Neuausrichtung) ...


15

This answer refers to everyday usage of the words, not necessary the biologically correct definition: To me as a native German speaker from South-Western Germany, Rettich and Radieschen are two entirely different things (and I am not sure I ever thought the two could be biologically related until this question just mentioned them together and thus hinted at ...


15

It's really pretty much the same in English, a bottle of water vs. a water bottle. While a Flasche Wasser certainly has some water in it, a Wasserflasche can be both full or empty. It's even more obvious with, say, wine or beer: Ich habe eine Flasche Wein zum Essen mitgebracht. Die leeren Weinflaschen geben wir nachher zum Altglas. Bring mir bitte eine ...


14

Da wohl kein Millionär dauerhaft exakt 1.000.000,00 Euro sein Eigen nennt, gäbe es praktisch nur Multimillionäre, wenn man Definition 1 voraussetzt. Der Begriff "Millionär" wäre damit entbehrlich. Wenn der Begriff "Multimillionär" also irgendeine Unterscheidungskraft besitzen soll, muss man m.E. Definition 2 anwenden.


14

Nein, Idee ist ein Femininum. Aber auch im Femininum kommt die Artikelform der vor, und zwar im Genitiv und im Dativ Singular: Die Ursprünge der Idee (Gen. Sg.)/der Ideen (Gen. Pl.) sind nicht mehr nachzuvollziehen. Ich gebe der Idee (Dat. Sg.) keine Chance. Im Text ist nicht ganz klar, woran der Idee sich anschließt – möglicherweise an das mit (mit ...


14

It should be zu Besuch, which is more of a fixed expression. Otherwise, yes it can be used with many nouns to express a purpose. Zum (zu dem) and zur (zu der) are contractions that are used in conjunction with words of their respective genus (zum: masculine, neutral; zur: feminine). Nominalized verbs (Putzen, Arbeiten) always have a neutral genus and are, ...


13

Simple, non-derived words have to be learned together with their inherent gender. They often have just one syllable or a complex one followed by a weak schwa syllable (or syllabic sonorant) and occur quite frequently. Derivation rules The rightmost part of a compound always determines its gender and its noun class (for inflection). This rightmost part may ...


13

The article is always that of the container. Eine/Die Schachtel Salz Eine/Die Flasche Wein The containers are countable, so if you've got multiple containers containing anything, the article is the plural form of the containers article Viele Flaschen Wein If you want to point at a certain set of bottles containing wine, you would probably use the ...


13

How are kids taught this? I'm guessing it is just repetition and memorization but any other exercises? Kids pick it up through osmosis, just like everybody learns their mother tongue, no additional exercises required. They just hear people talk, repeat and imitate what they said, perhaps get corrected once in a while, and that's that. Also, I wanted to ...


13

Du hast recht, dass Deutsche Grammophon feminin ist. Gleichzeitig ist das Grammophon unbestritten neutral. Des Rätsels Lösung ist, dass die Deutsche Grammophon laut Wikipedia 1898 als die Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft gegründet wurde – die Gesellschaft ist feminin. Später (1900) wurde die Gesellschaft zu einer Aktiengesellschaft umgewandelt, und demnach ...


13

Trööt is an onomatopoeia. It is meant to symbolise the sound that you get out of a trumpet (or other brass instrument) or a party horn. Various types of the latter are frequently present at demonstrations — which could, thus, be considered Protest mit Trööt. Here, obviously, the Spiegel is criticising the federal government for protesting in the most silent ...


13

‘Two nouns’ is a rather broad designator. It can happen in a number of cases: two different objects Ich bringe dem Herrn einen Kaffee one object, one noun describing the other (apposition) Ich bringe ihm das Gefäß, eine Tasse. a list of things Ich bringe ihm einen Kaffee und einen Keks a compound (although a compound is strictly only one noun it can ...


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