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55

You are falling into the trap laid out carefully by German Gender Mainstreaming throughout the years. No, in German a noun does not have a gender. It has a genus. This genus is a purely grammatical property defined by tradition. By default, it has nothing to do with biological sex or sociological gender. The word der Student is a masculine noun describing ...


36

What you see here is what is called Substantivierung - An adjective is elevated to a noun (dt: Substantiv) das Peinliche ("the embarrassing") is used as a noun in the sentence (after all, it is the object of the sentence) and thus has to be capitalised. The -s suffix is used in your example because of the "etwas" which enforces mixed declension.


33

I wrote a little Python script (see below) to find candidate words. It takes a dictionary and yields all uppercase words that end on ung unless: there exists a corresponding lowercase word ending on en, eln, or ern. For example bergen → Bergung, kapseln → Kapselung, mitteln → Mittlung, weigern → Weigerung. The presumed verb must at least have five letters ...


32

Note that the German word Hunger is a noun. Just as you'd not say I am hunger in English, you most likely would not say I am hunger in German. Ich bin hungrig is legal and works, but is less common than Ich habe Hunger. The same goes for being thirsty: Ich habe Durst Ich bin durstig Both of the above are valid but the former is far more common.


29

I think that die Zeitung fulfills the criteria.


24

It’s Scheißhaus. It’s a composition of the verb scheißen (not the noun Scheiße) and the noun Haus. See this or this for more details.


24

One reason you are having difficulties finding an adequate dictionary entry is because Kärtchen is what is known as a diminutive form. One of the diminutive endings -chen or -lein, when added to nouns, makes the modified noun smaller, cuter, or (less often) laughable. (Unfortunately for many words one of the two diminutives is much more common than the other,...


23

There is no fixed "rule" to define the gender of a loanword in German. This means that we have to look them up in a dictionary when in doubt. Still, some principles hold true for many loanwords that have been nicely summarized with some examples in the essay on the "Gender of foreign nouns" from canoo.net: The "origin principle": Foreign nouns have ...


22

It's not restricted to Berlin. Mahlzeit consists of Mahl (=process of eating) and Zeit (=time). So it refers to "the time when you eat" (=mealtime) and is technically not limited to lunchtime. However, it's widely used as kind of a greeting around lunchtime. So, even if you meet someone outside around lunchtime, you could say Mahlzeit. This is acceptable ...


20

"Multi" wird im Sinne von "mehrfach" oder "vielfach" benutzt, nicht im Sinne von "mehr als". Da ein "Millionär" per Definition (mindestens) eine Million Euro / Dollar / Geldeinheit oder äquivalent besitzt, erfüllt ein "Multimillionär" dieses Kriterium mehrfach, besitzt also mehrere Millionen. Der Kollege hat nur insofern Recht, als bereits 2 x 1 Million ...


20

das Abenteuer In 12th century the Old French word aventure was imported into the German language. In Middle High German it soon became aventiure and soon (still in Middle High German) v turned into b: abentiure And in New High German it turned into Abenteuer So this word has absolutely no connection to »der Abend« (the evening) or »teuer« (...


19

Heiraten bedeutet eine Ehe eingehen. Man ist also entweder Braut oder Bräutigam. Sich vermählen ist ein Synonym zu heiraten, in meinem Verständnis formaler und definitiv seltener verwendet. Trauen bedeutet nicht, dass man selbst den Bund der Ehe eingeht, sondern jemanden ehelich verbindet. Der Pastor traut das Ehepaar. Entsprechend ist das Äquivalent ...


19

It's no different than English, really. hungrig is an adjective meaning hungry. Hunger is a noun meaning hunger(appetite). Thus, "Ich bin Hunger" quite literally means "I am hunger", which makes no sense in either language. "Ich bin hungrig" means, just as in English, "I am hungry." Additionally, you can also say "Ich habe Hunger", literally translating ...


19

If you know the name, use the name. That’s the easy part. You can often still get away with ‘generisches Maskulinum’, i.e. Studenten, but in a university setting, i.e. where you’d actually use Student and Studentin to refer to students (instead of Schüler and Schülerin ‘pupil’ in a school or most other courses), it’s becoming rather common to use ...


18

First of all, there is no clear scheme after which the genders of loanwords are determined (see also this question). Even with words that are in the process of being loaned right now, native speakers find it hard to agree on the gender (e.g., I have seen any gender for Blog) and even if they do, it’s hard to pinpoint the reason. But let’s have a look at ...


17

The final "e" in "Bette" indicates the dative case and is not a plural form. It normally isn't used in contemporary German anymore, however there are some fixed expressions like "zu Hause" where it is still encountered nowadays. So Über meinem Bette. is singular and equivalent to Über meinem Bett. and the plural is Über meinen Betten.


17

Very often you have a vague idea of what you want to say, and with this idea often comes some words that have similar meanings, but still are not exactly what you want to say. So you often use their genders to find an article. And when it's wrong, you just correct it when you've found the right word. Hast du meinen Schlüsselbund gesehen? Ja, der liegt ...


16

No. However, you can use a "Nominalkompositum" (nominal composition) to achieve the same effect. Example: Flachbildfernseher The first part of this compound word is called the Determinans ("Flachbild"), it determines some kind of attribute about the following part, the Determinatum (Fernseher). Notice that "Flachbild" is a compound word in itself, but ...


16

Wie du selbst geschrieben hast: "Multi" kommt von griechisch "viel", was auch "mehr als eins" sein kann. In diesem Fall ist ein Multimillionär jemand, der "viele" Millionen besitzt, also mindestens 2. Auch für "mehr als eine Million" wären es mindestens zwei, da man von Millionen ausgeht. Die Zählschritte dabei sind 1 Million, 2 Millionen, 3 Millionen … ...


15

In that sentence it is not possible to differentiate the meaning of Sie. You need either a context or the possibility to see if Sie is capitalized because of the punctuation, or because of its meaning as "formal you". For instance: — Haben Sie meine Brieftasche gesehen? Ich habe sie verloren. — Möglichkeit A: Ja, sie haben Ihre Brieftasche. (they-...


15

This answer refers to everyday usage of the words, not necessary the biologically correct definition: To me as a native German speaker from South-Western Germany, Rettich and Radieschen are two entirely different things (and I am not sure I ever thought the two could be biologically related until this question just mentioned them together and thus hinted at ...


14

You are correct in observing that German is probably the only language to still capitalise common nouns. (Note the emphasis) First of all, this is because capitalisation can only happen in scripts such as Cyrillic, Greek or Latin which distinguish between capital and lower-case letters. Why they do that can probably be traced back to Charlemagne who ...


14

Das Substantiv Ruderer ist eine männliche Personenbezeichnung, die aus dem Verbstamm ruder (vom Verb rudern) und der Endung -er gebildet wird. Weibliche Bezeichnungen werden mit dem Suffix -in zur männlichen Form gebildet. Da das Doppel-er in der Mitte eines Wortes jedoch schwer auszusprechen ist, wird es zu einem er zusammengefasst. Das ist im Deutschen ...


14

"Berliner" is a standard adjectival derivative of a proper geografical noun which carries the ending -er regardless of the gender of the noun: Der Berliner Raum Die Berliner Sparkasse Das Berliner Straßennetz What is more, "Berliner" is never inflected: Der Berliner Raum Des Berliner Raums Dem Berliner Raum Den Berliner Raum Same with "Wiener"...


14

Nein, Idee ist ein Femininum. Aber auch im Femininum kommt die Artikelform der vor, und zwar im Genitiv und im Dativ Singular: Die Ursprünge der Idee (Gen. Sg.)/der Ideen (Gen. Pl.) sind nicht mehr nachzuvollziehen. Ich gebe der Idee (Dat. Sg.) keine Chance. Im Text ist nicht ganz klar, woran der Idee sich anschließt – möglicherweise an das mit (mit ...


14

It should be zu Besuch, which is more of a fixed expression. Otherwise, yes it can be used with many nouns to express a purpose. Zum (zu dem) and zur (zu der) are contractions that are used in conjunction with words of their respective genus (zum: masculine, neutral; zur: feminine). Nominalized verbs (Putzen, Arbeiten) always have a neutral genus and are, ...


14

It's really pretty much the same in English, a bottle of water vs. a water bottle. While a Flasche Wasser certainly has some water in it, a Wasserflasche can be both full or empty. It's even more obvious with, say, wine or beer: Ich habe eine Flasche Wein zum Essen mitgebracht. Die leeren Weinflaschen geben wir nachher zum Altglas. Bring mir bitte eine ...


14

‘Two nouns’ is a rather broad designator. It can happen in a number of cases: two different objects Ich bringe dem Herrn einen Kaffee one object, one noun describing the other (apposition) Ich bringe ihm das Gefäß, eine Tasse. a list of things Ich bringe ihm einen Kaffee und einen Keks a compound (although a compound is strictly only one noun it ...


13

Yes, there is a subtle and difficult-to-grasp difference and there even is a third possibility. First of all, a neutral form can be used for something in this colour: das Weiße des Auges – the white part of the eye das Schwarze der Zielscheibe – the black part of a target; the bullseye The second neutral form (note the different inflection without -...


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