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3

One problem you are encountering is, that Verwandte may be two entirely different things: a female relative (singular), a collection of relatives (nominative plural). Sie hat keine Verwandte is obviously the female singular (the plural would require an ending -n in accusative) and therefore the wrong tanslation for relatives.


4

Those are (at least originally) nominalized adjectives, their declension is like that of adjectives. Just imagine that they are followed by a noun.


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This already has some good answers, but I thought there were a few additional details that might be helpful for learners like myself. German follows what I call the "Right Hand Rules" law, meaning that when you have a compound such as Sprachbund, it's declined according to the last part Bund. Wiktionary does not have a declination table for ...


3

In German, there is nothing usually called 'declension classes', but what comes closest to it are the genders: masculine, feminine, neuter -- but there are many finer subdivisions! They define how a noun is declined. But what is declension, to begin with? It's assigning a noun a case and a number. Cases are: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative. Numbers ...


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It seems there is a misconception here as to what grammatical cases are. I infer this from the title, where you speak of "declension class", and from the body, where you speak of "type of substantiv (accusative, dative, nominative)" and where you ask "if it can be all three". This leads me to think that you believe that each ...


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