31

The German "Bad" corresponds to the English "Spa". Towns containing a "Heilbad" may carry the protected title "Bad" and many of them do.


30

Considering that another name for Olivenbaum is Ölbaum and the biological family is Ölbaumgewächse (Oleaceae), Ölberg with the meaning of “mountain of olive trees” makes sense to me. Ölberg has nothing to do with (olive) oil, but with the tree itself.


26

No, this isn't right. Einmal nach Tübingen, bitte. would be fine. You can think of it as a short form of Einen Fahrschein für die Fahrt nach Tübingen, bitte. But you could also say Einmal bis Tübingen, bitte. which would be short for Bitte ein Ticket, das bis Tübingen gültig ist.


24

German towns can participate in a certification process to allow to carry a rating as Bad in their town name. By German federal law strict prerequisites have to be met by an applicant, e.g.: presence of certain scientifically proven healing substances in the soil (like minerals, salts, radiation or the like) regularly analyzed healthy climate institutions ...


21

You can say "Oderstrand" or "Rheinufer" because you would not say "Oder Fluss" or "Rhein Fluss". The Red River (at least the one in Asia) is translated as "Roter Fluss" so you would have to say "am Ufer des Roten Flusses". You would only use "Strand" in this context if there actually was a beach on the river, i.e. the bank was sandy and flat. "...


20

Zu cannot be used with towns and cities. It can only be used with buildings Zum Rathaus Zum Hauptbahnhof squares and streets Zum Berliner Platz Zur Friedrich-Wilhelm-Straße To reference countries, towns, even boroughs or suburbs — in short, any political entity — you need to use nach Nach Tübingen Nach Berlin-Spandau Nach Dänemark Nach ...


19

The origin of the name "Schweiz" is indeed the name of the town "Schwyz" and the canton with the same name. In the 14th century the Swiss people were actually called "Eidgenossen". After a battle (Schlacht bei Sempach) where soldiers from the canton "Schwyz" had an important part, a chronicler first called all "Eidgenossen" as "Schwyzer", short for "...


16

The German Ölberg is a gravely wrong translation of the Greek name for the Mount of Olives ὄρος τῶν ἐλαιῶν (oros ton elaion). The Greek version is absolutely unambiguous when spoken, or written with accents. An ambiguity arises when using capital letters, as these don't allow for the placement of accents. The small-letter Greek writing system was finalised ...


16

We simply use the Dutch name of that city and don't translate it into German - And that happens to be Den Haag. The fact that this looks like "den", the accusative of "der" is pure coincidence (or maybe not, as both languages have common roots). (See also Carsten S's comment on the different pronunciation/stress of the "e" in "den")


16

Roth, auch Rötel oder Rot kommt in erstaunlich vielen Flur- Gewässer- und Gemeindenamen überall im deutschen Sprachraum (nicht nur NRW und BW) vor. Rötel ist eine Bezeichnung für eine mineralische Farbe mit einem roten Farbton auf Eisenoxydbasis, die schon die Neandertaler für ihre Höhlenmalereien verwendet haben - Da rote Farbe alternativ hauptsächlich aus ...


15

As you can see from your examples, Öl is a more archaic usage. The substance known as "oil" was originally only derived from olives (which was constrained to the Mediterranean area in those days). Only later was it also applied to other fluids like what would be derived from wool, petroleum, sunflower seeds, etc. So in the archaic usage, Öl would be pretty ...


15

I cannot prove the following, but would assume it makes sense. The Lutherian bible was translated into German 1545 - Most probably no one in the intended audience would have had an idea what an "Olive" was supposed to be or would ever see one in his entire life (perhaps not even Luther himself). Everyone, however, knew what "Öl" was (Albeit not made from ...


14

All nouns have a gender – a couple allegedly even three, but no name is ungendered. You just have to find out which. In this case, cities (and most countries) are regularly neuter. That rule is stronger than the rules of compound nouns (as @Crissov stated, der Berg does not influence Heidelberg → not masculine). One could, for instance, say Das schöne ...


13

You asked only about Germany, and TimWolla's answer is also correct for Austria, but not for Switzerland. (These are the three biggest countries where German is an official language.) The reason, why this is different in different countries, is, because this is a matter of statutory provisions, which are different from nation to nation. To put »Bad« in ...


12

Den Haag is the Dutch name of the city. The den in there is not considered a German accusative masculine definite article (or a German plural dative definite article) but an integral part of the city’s name. Rather than pronouncing it /de:n ha:k/, as a German definite article would imply, the German pronunciation is /dɛn ha:g/ with a more open and shorter e ...


12

Your first assumption would be correct, if there wasn't that last word of the sentence... The sentence reads: Neue Parkvorschriften im Ortskern and Simbacher is only a descriptive attribute to the noun Ortskern And regarding Drau and Main: There are complete dissertations that try to find out the rules, why some rivers in Germany are male and some are ...


12

The explanation is that Coesfeld is situated in a region influenced by Middle Dutch. The e is a lengthening vocal in this case ("Dehnungs-e"). This is similar to Dutch. In German, this lengthening e is now only present in names. It occurs at the lower Rhine river due to the influence of Middle Dutch. Other names I know are Soest and Fuest, but the ...


11

Zunächst Preußen. Dieser Name leitet sich von einem baltischen Volksstamm ab, dessen Eigenbezeichnung *Prūsai (rekonstruiert aus dem Adjektiv prūsiskan) war. Dieser Stamm besiedelte das Gebiet, das in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts Ostpreußen genannt wurde. Im Mittelniederdeutschen wurde dieser Stamm als Prûsse bezeichnet, im Mittelhochdeutschen als ...


11

The bottom line is you'd need a full historical record of each hydronym you'd like to analyze. I cite http://m.spiegel.de/kultur/zwiebelfisch/a-364172.html Das Geschlecht von Flüssen lässt sich leider nicht nach Regeln bestimmen. Jeder Flussname hat seine eigene Geschichte, und deren Ursprung liegt meistens im Nebel frühester Zeiten verborgen und ist oft ...


11

Names of places are often centuries old and have not been adapted to modern spellings. For a bit of fun, consider the place names Voerde, Itzehoe and Buchloe where the oe is pronounced as /øː/, /oː/ and /oə/, respectively. Buchloe is explained simply by there being multiple syllables colliding with the penultimate one ending in o and the final one being just ...


10

Das Geschlecht des Wortes "Portugal" ist sächlich. Also meine ich, dass Du recht hast, und man es so sagen könnte 2014 spielt Deutschland gegen Portugal, das zu stark ist.


9

The suffix "-ingen" describes the affilation to a leader or a person in general. So in Sigmaringen lived the relatives of Sigmar. This is not a swabian thing, as you can find many town names with this suffix (even in Europe). It comes from the transmigration when regions were settled by germanics. The origin of this suffix is old high german or germanic. ...


9

It only works for rivers which don't need that river extension to be recognized. So, Oh London, du Zasterpfuhl am Themsestrand (Oh London, you boodle puddle on Thames' banks) works, but for the Red River, regardless which one, it doesn't work. Because you cannot tell its name from that of the color Red. This problem also arises in German. For example, ...


8

As others have pointed out: Den Haag is a Dutch name, adopted without change in German. In the source language "den" is a local or archaic variant of "de", the definite article for masc. and fem. sing. and is used in Dutch for all cases. The common noun "haag" ("hedge") is in fact feminine. So, etymologically "den Haag" means "the hedge", regardless of case.


8

Die grundsätzliche Regel lautet: Eigennamen stehen in der Regel ohne Artikel An sich reicht das schon als Antwort, steht trotzdem einer da, ist es entweder eine akzeptierte Ausnahme, oder falsch. Diese grundsätzliche Regel kommt allerdings mit sehr vielen Ausnahmen. Dein Berlin-Beispiel ist keine davon. Dein erstes Beispiel, der Michael, ist genaugenommen ...


8

This rule actually refers to "geographical names" rather than just cities - the capitalisation of "Schweizer" thus just follows the rules :) D 90: Von geografischen Namen abgeleitete Wörter auf -er schreibt man immer groß <§ 61>. das Ulmer Münster eine Kölner Firma die Schweizer Uhrenindustrie die Wiener Kaffeehäuser Edit: I ...


7

Wiktionary sagt: [ˈkɔχm̩] also ganz ohne e.


7

Es ist hier wichtig zu wissen, dass das F auf altnordisch, isländisch und altdänisch im Wortinneren immer für [v] steht (außer vor s und t wo es tatsächlich [f] repräsentiert). Die Aussprache von -havn war also niemals mit [f], sondern ursprünglich mit [v]. Auf schwedisch ist aus /vn/ /mn/ entstanden - vielleicht via *[bn] (wie im heutigen Isländischen) so ...


7

Das hängt davon ab, wie der Staat als ganzes benutzt wird. Manche Staaten haben einen Artikel und sind damit einhergehend meistens keine Neutra. Die überwiegende Mehrzahl der Staaten der Erde wird jedoch artikellos verwendet – und diese sind stets Neutra. Alles folgende ist die übliche deutsche Grammatik. Um den Zustand in einem Ort zu beschreiben, wird die ...


7

English hill translates into German Hügel but unlike in English speaking countries there are no cities, not even even villages but two named -hügel (Birkenhügel and Königshügel) and none … am … Hügel. Perhaps because Hügel usually don't have a unique name in Germany. Or maybe because the most known Hügel are der Maulwurfshügel, der Idiotenhügel and der ...


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