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It's not ihr es, but ihrs / ihres (theirs). I think, today you would rather say something like: Sie dachten sich ihren Teil dabei. They had their own thoughts on the matter. But as you see: der Teil is nothing really specific. It just stands for what comes to their mind. A sentence like Ich denke mir meinen Teil und schweige. means, I keep my thoughts ...


If you want to be polite, you capitalize pronouns in personal speech. It's good manner and mainly used in letters.


The only reason for a noun phrase to be accusative is that a verb or a preposition requires the accusative. The case required by a verb or preposition is fixed for each syntactical role. It doesn't depend on the rest of the sentence. Thus, the accusative in sentence 1 and 2 has nothing to do with the pronouns, but is required by the verbs jemanden/etw. mögen ...


It does have to do with the pronoun in your examples, but you can't generalize that. The important question is: in your "dass"-clauses, who or what is the subject, and who or what is the object? The subject is in nominative, the object is in a different case, most of the time accusative or dative. For your examples that means: Meine Mutter findet, ...


No. Verbs and prepositions govern the case. The verb sein demands the nominative: Meine Mutter findet, dass ihre Ärztin gut ist On the other hand etw. haben or etw./jmdn. mögen demands the accusative case.

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