English is a SVO language.
SVO means: Subject, Verb, Object(s) in exactly this order.
But English is the only Germanic language with this word order. German and all other Germanic languages (Dutch, Afrikaans, Yiddish, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian and many others) are V2 languages.
V2 means: Verb at position 2.
SVO is a more strict subtype of V2.
In German the ...
In English the topicalisation of declarative clauses is facultative, the subject is in first position, and there may be an additional item in front of it. While in German, declarative clauses are always topicalized.
Die Blätter fallen im Herbst von den Bäumen.
The leaves fall from the trees in autumn.
Im Herbst fallen die Blätter von den Bäumen.
Both expressions generally mean the same, with a slight difference:
Wir bauen diese Schule seit einem Jahr clearly states that the school was built from the ground up, that is, there was nothing there before.
Wir bauen seit einem Jahr an dieser Schule can mean the very same, but it could also mean general construction work at an already existing building, ...
Yes, the sentence indeed is ambiguous, but no, this is not an issue at all.
In fact, most sentences in most languages are in (partly) ambiguous. Our brains just automatically resolve most of these ambiguities from context and world knowledge before we notice they were even there.
Take, for example, the first sentence in your question:
Recently, I wrote ...
These are the parts of this sentence:
die Wahrnehmung von Gerüchen
Note, that neither Wahrnehmung nor Gerüchen are subjects. The whole nominal group is the subject.
ist ein komplexer Vorgang
The predicate consists of two parts:
This verb is of a special kind, it is a ...
Two things to note here. First, reflexives can be added freely to verbs no matter what their verb frame definition says. The construction is typically something like this:
Komm mir nicht zu spät nach Hause!
= Don't you dare come home too late!
Second, Ich lobe mir etw. is an even more common idiomatic expression, meaning not that you literally utter praise,...
The answer to your question depends on what a sentence is. But this is not really clear. Wikipedia claims that there are about 200 different definitions of what a grammatical sentence is.
So you might find definitions that say:
“Okay.” is a sentence, because it is a complete statement.
but you will also find definitions that say:
No! A sentence must ...
You're right, both can be meant, son or plaster. Use »dessen« to remove the ambiguity.
Plötzlich wollte mein Sohn aber doch den Gips vor dessen Untergang
Now it's clear that »dessen« refers to the »Gips«.
First, your example would be translated as “Ich weiß, dass du gut tanzt” (verb in the end in a dass… sub clause).
If you want to express doubt about something, you put the nicht with the weiß, just like in English: “I do not know if I can come tomorrow” is “Ich weiß nicht, ob ich morgen kommen kann”. Like you assumed, if is used (ob in German), cause that ...
The general form in German is
Ich weiß, dass ...
The opposite would be
Ich weiß nicht, ob ...
I'm going to elaborate on the comment I gave yesterday a bit to make clearer why wenn is not an option here:
According to the dictionaries, the English if can be translated (among others) as wenn, falls or ob in German, but just like it is not always ...
Here is a helpful example of when you can use "denn" but "weil" doesn't really make sense:
Er muss müde sein, denn er trinkt viel Kaffee.
"He must be tired, because / seeing as he is drinking a lot of coffee."
Er muss müde sein, weil er viel Kaffee trinkt.
"He must be tired, because / reason being he is drinking coffee."
"Weil" implies ...
ein Berliner is in Nominativ since it is a Gleichsetzungsnominativ (predicate noun).
You don’t ask
Wen oder was bin ich?
but instead you do ask
Wer oder was bin ich?
Have a look at Nominative on the German Wikipedia
Gleichsetzungsnominativ can follow the verbs sein, werden, heißen, scheinen (zu sein), bleiben, gelten (als), (sich) fühlen (als), (...
I would probably avoid the long subordinate clause within the first subordinate clause, and say
Weil Einkaufszentren eines von wenigen Dingen sind, die das Leben auf dem Land weniger langweilig machen, sind sie wirklich wichtig.
instead. But grammatically, the original sentence is fine; there's no rule against two successive occurrences of "sind".
The sentence has a slightly different meaning from what you thought.
Ich mache Ihnen deswegen keine Vorwürfe.
means something like
I'm not accusing / reproaching you because of that.
The adverb "deswegen" is used in a demonstrative sense, pointing to something that was probably mentioned before.
A more natural English translation could be something ...
In main clauses, German uses V2 (the verb is on second position), and that means VO most of the time.
German (V2 -> VO): Julia ruft den Hund.
English (VO): Julia calls the dog.
Latin (OV): Iulia canem vocat.
However, thanks to the declined articles and cases that German has, it is more flexible, and you can use a different word order to emphasize parts ...
Wichtig ist hierbei, dass "Leichte Sprache" in erster Linie ein Mittel ist, um Menschen mit Lernschwierigkeiten das Verständnis gerade längerer oder komplexer Texte zu erleichtern. Dass hierbei politische Aussagen klarer werden ist eher ein angenehmer Nebeneffekt.
Die Trennung von zusammengesetzten Wörtern ergibt dabei eigentlich nur Sinn, wenn die ...
Your assumption is wrong. You can't interchange the words "by, with, via, through" in English
The mailbox is with via through by the bus stop.
Be back with via through by ten o'clock!.
Hamlet was written with via through by William Shakespeare.
He went by via through with his friends.
She cuts the rope by via through with a knife.
He spoke by via ...
"Es" as a subject replacement (Expletivum) can generally be dropped from a sentence when it can be ensured otherwise that the verb is in the second (logical) position.
German, unlike many other languages (and that's probably why many non-native speakers feel that something must be missing), doesn't really need a subject to form a proper sentence, ...
Die Verordnung zur Schaffung barrierefreier Informationstechnik nach dem Behindertengleichstellungsgesetz (kurz BITV 2.0) enthält in Anlage 2, Teil 2 Vorgaben für Bereitstellung von Informationen (im Internet/Intranet) in Leichter Sprache. Unter anderem:
"Abkürzungen, Silbentrennung am Zeilenende, Verneinungen sowie Konjunktiv-, Passiv- und Genitiv-...
Am Beispiel von
Da diese Frage wahr zu sein scheint, ...
erkennt man, dass der Satzbau in Ordnung ist. Nun setzt man an Stelle von wahr die Wortgruppe bereits woanders diskutiert worden, die hier die Stellung des Adjektivs - also den Zustand vom Wort Frage - einnimmt, und bekommt Version 3 der angefragten Möglichkeiten.
The two sentences have to be read together. Consider this:
Sie suchen Alternativen. Ich auch.
In this case, the meaning is clear: the speaker affirms the plan of the addressed.
Now, by saying,
Sie suchen Alternativen. Ich den besten Weg.
the speaker offers an another option. "You look for alternatives, well, I'll look for the best route."
Eine is the indefinite article but also a count »one«, you have to add a matching noun in your thoughts:
Du bist der eine, der immer schwierige Fragen stellt.
Du bist der eine Mensch, der immer schwierige Fragen stellt.
You are the one (human) who always asks hard questions.
The noun may also be a thing:
Das ist die eine (Schraube), die sich von selbst ...
"Was machen sie?" simply means
What are they doing?
And "Was machen Sie?" means
What are you doing?
Note the difference between "sie" (they) and "Sie" (you).
Side note: "Was macht sie?" (verb in singular form) means "What is she doing?"
There is absolutely no greeting connotation in those questions. It would be very impolite to enter a room ...
In German, what number and type of objects a verb needs has to be learned. There are two relevant meanings of passen here, DWDS 1a and 1b.
The first states that a piece of clothing fits somebody with regard to size and cut. The piece of clothing is the subject, the person is a dative object (which is optional and can be left out).
Seit meiner Diät passen ...
That's a shame / What a shame / It's a shame
are fixed phrases that are translated to
Das ist schade / Wie schade! or "Das ist aber schade!" / es ist schade
What a shame
could also be translated as
So eine Schande!
but is has still the colloquial meaning of "Das ist sehr schade"
Reference1 , Reference2
Das ist ärgerlich!
is correct in ...
Meine Nummer ist is indeed used quite often in German and not an "English" term at all.
So if you would like to stick with your relative clause construct, it would be
Meine Nummer, an die Sie die SMS senden können, ist die _______.
But this reads a little bit "holprig" (rough).
I personally would rather go with a much simpler approach like:
To comment your examples directly:
Hast du ... gemacht?
Ja, habe ich.
Here the answer is just a short form of "Ja, (das) habe ich( gemacht)." and is used just for shortness in everyday language. This is indeed very common for short answers where you otherwise would just repeat the words of the question.
Your second example in my opinion contains (...