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"Dafür" basically means "for something" or "for this". It can be used in several ways: To express an aim or a goal: Er hat sich ein neues Auto gekauft. Dafür hatte er lange gespart. He just bought a new car. For this, he had saved up a long time. To express regard to something. Sie lernt erst seit kurzem Deutsch. Dafür ...


The meaning in this case is that while she has a headache (negative effect), she has learned the difference between dative and accusative (positive effect). It is more about compensation, like you spend some money, but get something in return. It is not about the reason, although you can argue that the former ignorance is the reason for the headache.


Both are from the Nebensatz point of view pretty right (just that it's "gegangen bin" ("geht" is Präsens): Als ich ein Kind war, hat mein Vater mir viele Märchen, bevor ich ins Bett gegangen bin, erzählt. Als ich ein Kind war, hat mein Vater mir viele Märchen erzählt, bevor ich ins Bett gegangen bin. The second one is more readable. ...

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