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5

This can only be answered in context, as -- see Carsten's answer -- the names are not marked for case. If the previous sentence was something along the lines of "Peter traf seine alten Schulfreunde nach langer Zeit wieder", then Peter would normally be interpreted as the theme, or topic. In this sentence some information (rheme or comment) is given about ...


2

In einem nicht weiter spezifizierten Kontext wäre das normale ("by default") Verständnis des Satzes Natascha hat Peter früher gut gefallen nach meinem Sprachempfinden: (Wer:) Natascha hat (wem:) Peter früher gut gefallen. wobei der aktive Part (das logische Subjekt) Peter ist. Man kann den Sachverhalt aktivisch auch ausdrücken als (Wer:) Peter hat (...


12

The problem in analysing the sentence is that in modern German proper names are not inflected and we therefore cannot tell the cases by looking at them in isolation. Let us replace the names by personal pronouns to make the cases clear. This can be either Sie hat ihm gefallen. in which case he liked her (see also this question), or Ihr hat er ...


1

What one calls freie Rede in German, is a speech without reading it from a paper or screen. Thus to distinguish that meaning from freedom of speech one could call it unscripted speech. A speech not following a prepared script.


1

Guten Morgen liebe Marie. Is it affectionate, flirtatious, or just a greeting you would send to any friend? Well, affectionate in the sense of cordial yes. Flirtatious usually not, at least not in a context used at work or for a friend1. It can be used for any colleague or friend. If used in a romantic relationship, it would rather be ...


0

As already written, this word once won the competition in 1998 about a german isogram with each letter only once appearing (german wikipedia), thus it is fictional. The usage itself I cannot link as I have no student's account any longer to access the information. In my educational program it was widely used in programming courses to demonstrate how sorting ...


0

According to Wikipedia, Heizölrückstoßabdämpfung is fictitious. Yet, there's the word Heizölrückstoßdämpfung meaning "heating oil rebound absorver". This word is both true in the sense it exists and it doesn't have grammatical mistakes.


1

Your quotation is from "Spiegel Online". In fact it refers to a website of the Austrian "Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft and Forschung", but it is not easy to find the phrase "deutschländisches Deutsch". On this website you can search for "deutschländisch" and find a link to a pdf "Sprache im Wandel – Die Macht der Sprache (11./12. Schulstufe)" ...


1

First, if it existed, deutschlaendisch would be an adjective. Deutschland is simply German-Land (Germany). Germans say "er/sie spricht Hollaendisch", meaning he/she speaks Dutch but they would never say he/she speaks Deutschlaendisch. They would say he/she speaks Deutsch. But we do use auslandisch, englisch, amerikanisch, britisch, arabish etc. both as ...


-1

For it's very unusual construct. First of all, it's a compound noun. "Stück" can be translated in various ways. In this context it's a piece to do something with, namely to sniff (schnüffeln, verb). A sniffing implement. It could be a vulgarism for nose. If it were a snifter valve, an industrial piece of equipment to detect odors or gases, the German word ...


0

Know, that I want to slink away from these loud rogues. As soon the stars are blooming pale-white above the oaks. I want to dare to wander paths that are seldom trod. On moon-lit evening-meadows and have no dream than this: You are with me.


1

While the word verweilen means to pause and to spend some time dealing with something, there are better alternatives for to dwell on something. Sich mit etwas aufhalten includes wasting time and being prevented from progressing. Example: Du solltest dich nicht zu lange mit der Vergangenheit aufhalten. A second option would be auf etwas herumreiten ...


0

The most used way to express this in German would be Zerbrich Dir nicht (zuviel) den Kopf darüber (literally: don't break your head (too much) about it). If it is about something in the past (and therefore cannot be changed any more), a typical proverb would be: Man soll sich nicht über vergossene Milch ärgern (Don’t cry over spilt milk )


3

Die Geschichte zeigt, dass wir unmöglich am Ziel angekommen sein können. Unmöglich ist eine Verneinung; obwohl es den Sinn leicht verändert, können wir es bis auf weiteres durch nicht ersetzen. Das gibt uns: Die Geschichte zeigt, dass wir nicht am Ziel angekommen sein können. Jetzt müssen wir die Verben aufschlüsseln. Können ist ein reines Hilfsverb, ...


2

The key to successfully translating the sentence in question lies in recognising the fact that unmöglich can be used to negate the verb, just like nicht. Die Geschichte zeigt, dass wir unmöglich am Ziel angekommen sein können. History shows that we cannot possibly have reached the end. This leads to ambiguities that English doesn't have. Das kann ...


9

A precise translation is: History shows that we can't possibly have reached the goal. It implies that we will still progress further from hereon. Maybe we'll never reach our goal. Die Geschichte could also mean the story, depending on context. gnasher729 pointed this out in the comments.


2

I'd say "Er sprang vom Tisch." 😉 No need for "hinab" or "herunter" here, imho.


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