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38

Mit grep finde ich in einem Wörterbuch: egrep ".*[äöüßÄÖÜ].*[äöüß].*[äöüß].*[äöüß]" ~/lib/dicts/utf-german Fußgängerübergänge Größenmaßstäbe größenordnungsmäßig also 3 Vierlinge, aber leider alle mit einer Wiederholung. Längere sind nicht verzeichnet, aber da man im Deutschen beliebig lange Substantive kombinieren kann wäre "Fußgängerübergangsmörtel" ein ...


30

Ü/ü should not be written as Ū/ū in handwritten documents. The 'ū' used to be the distinction between 'n' and 'u' in handwriting because they look very similar. It was a part of the 'Sütterlinschrift' as you can see here.


26

Multiple questions, multiple answers: In English, the sounds like a, e, i, o, u are called vowel sounds. Erm, technically true, but you’re forgetting y. And there are a lot more vowel sounds that just the five ‘standard’ ones. There are some twenty different vowel sounds in English if you include diphthongs (and there’s no real reason not to). I want ...


25

Short answer: Take a look at MySQL and different character-collations. Choose one and follow its rules. Or as @RHa and @cbeleites suggest find a library that provides locale-dependent sorting. Long answer: There are 3 different solutions for your problem (actually there are 4, but believe me, you don't want to realize the 4th ;) ) Rewrite every Umlaut to ...


24

Ein Übergrößengeschäft ist ein Laden, der sich auf Kleidung oder Schuhe in Übergrößen spezialisiert hat.


18

Some people do this, but that doesn't mean it's correct. It is just sloppy writing and (maybe) a remnant from "Sütterlin" that distinguished the "n" from the "u" that way, and thus has no relationship to umlauts. Old handwriting (other than "Sütterlin") also allowed to write double consonants "nn" and "mm" as a single one with an added vertical bar on top (...


17

We are probably talking about then handwriting as it is taught to children in school. Before 1970 When I was at school we were taught the "Lateinische Ausgangsschrift" where we had to make strokes on the letters as shown below: Source: Wikipedia This was mainly done from historic reasons. The school handwritings derived from Sütterlin, and the &...


16

I found some word with three characters (un)verhältnismäßig, Verhältnismäßigkeit Präzisionsmeßgerät (old spelling, and perhaps "zusammengesetzte Substantiv") Lückenbüßer Übergröße Müßiggänger außerplanmäßig Some more without a check in the Duden: Einflußgröße Gefäßschädigung Meßgröße Rückäußerung Rückstöße blütenübersät flächenmäßig gefühlsmäßig ...


16

The result of the dots, so the letter with the dots on it, is an Umlaut – literally a “resounding” – of the vowel. The dots themselves are commonly known as ä/ö/ü-Striche (or Strichelchen), depending on what word you have in mind. That’s what we, including the teachers, used in school. The term umlaut only came to my attention once I started having contact ...


15

ä → ae ö → oe ü → ue Ä → Ae Ö → Oe Ü → Ue ß → ss (or SZ) The SZ is only for words in capitals (and I think for old spelling). Für LaTeX-Nutzer gibt es auch die Umschreibung "a, "o, "u, bzw. "A, "O, "U (bzw. \"a, \"o, \"u, bzw. \"A, \"O, \"U) You are also asking for a kind of official link. Maybe Din 5007 helps a bit. That's a norm for sorting. An "ä" is ...


15

Abgesehen von einigen zusammengesetzten Adjektiven, die sich analog zum Stammadjektiv verhalten (z. B. wasserarm), werden im Deutschen meines Wissens nur primäre Adjektive¹ mit Umlautung gesteigert. Von diesen gibt es nur etwa dreihundert (was auch relativ normal für eine Sprache sein dürfte). Davon wiederum enthält nur etwa die Hälfte einen umlautbaren Laut ...


14

All images are hyperlinks to their sources. As with all historical typographic and linguistic developments, it’s much more easy to say what happened than why it happened. The following is a brief overview over the history, which I try to back up where I can: In medieval calligraphy and typsetting before movable type, it was quite common to use superscript ...


14

What you learnt is correct. You always write the umlaut unless you don’t have it on your keyboard. However especially in names the rules are somewhat flexible. So you might see people using the e behind the vowel instead of the umlaut and if that’s how the name is spelled then the official rule does not apply anymore. This is based on a case by case ...


14

I'd say it can be written this way. Not that it is taught to be written so, or even encouraged, but everyone who reads it will understand what is meant. I do not believe this is a remnant from the Kurrent or Sütterlin, because there a bowed line denoted something completely different, as has already been pointed out.Two short vertical lines or even a wavy ...


11

It's an "umlaut transliteration", if you will, and was quite common in the days of typewriters. In these days of ubiquitous Unicode, there's little excuse for it (US-keyboard or no). Here's probably more than you wanted to know: Conversion table for diacritics (e.g. "ü" → "ue")


10

Deine Grundannahme ist falsch "weihnachtlich" leitet sich nicht direkt von "der Nacht" sondern von "Weihnacht" ab. Siehe dazu: canoo Im Gegensatz dazu leitet sich "nächtlich" direkt von "Nacht" ab. Hier kommt es bei der Bildung mit dem Suffix -lich zu einer Anpassung des Stammes. Diese Stammanpassung wird bei "Weihnacht-lich" ausgelassen. Das Wörterbuch ...


10

If there is no way to type an umlaut character, then replacing e.g. ü by ue is the only correct option. Replacing it by u as you did in your question before the edit is incorrect. Indeed Gruß and grüß (or transliterated Gruss and gruess) are distinct German words with differently pronounced vowels. The latter is the imperative of the verb grüßen (to greet), ...


10

Oh Mann, was für ein Freitag! Da kommt man motiviert in die Firma, um der Arbeitswoche die letzten paar Stunden abzuringen, und dann gibt’s nur Probleme. Seit ein paar Tagen ist in der Produktion eine Maschine defekt. Bei der heutigen Lieferung des Ersatzteils stellt sich heraus, dass etwas mit der Bestellung schiefgegangen ist. Im Paket befand sich eine ...


10

I suggest that the premise of this question is somewhat incorrect. The umlaut dots cannot be written as a single line, but a single line is well what might end up on paper when writing quickly. The faster you write, the higher becomes the chance you might just not sufficiently lift up the pen from the paper while moving between two points that are supposed ...


9

Ein Mikrofilmprinter ist ein Rückvergrößerungsgerät zur Erstellung von Papierkopien aus Mikrofilmen. Analoge Rückvergrößerungsgeräte werden heute nahezu komplett durch Mikrofilmscanner ersetzt. Quelle: http://www.rosenberger-gruppe.de/glossar Bei Google hat es auch viele Bilder dazu. Auf den Treffer esse ich jetzt ein Grießklößchensüppchenschälchen.


9

Umlaut marks are usually used to show that an inflection has occurred, that is the umlaut is a synchronic change. Umlauted vowels are less common than unumlauted vowels, but I think it's going too far to say that they are "usually" used to show inflection. The front rounded vowel sounds /yː/, /ʏ/, /øː/, /œ/ are regularly written with ü and ö in German, and ...


8

This seems like a hyphen rather than a dash. There are some more hyphens beside the ASCII hyphen-minus in Unicode: U+002D (hyphen-minus) + U+0308 = -̈ U+2010 (hyphen) + U+0308 = ‐̈ U+2011 (non-breaking hyphen) + U+0308 = ‑̈ U+2E1A (hyphen with diaeresis) = ⸚ On my system (and on any system with a proper implementation of OpenType), the first three should ...


8

This simply is wrong. It should be: BEI VÖLLIGER DUNKELHEIT ENTWICKELN There is a letter »V̈«, but it is not part of the German language. (Some Oceanic languages use this letter, for example Araki)


8

Das liegt an der Entwicklung der deutschen (und anderen germanischen) Sprache aus dem indoeuropäischen Vorläufer. Das Indoeuropäische kennt nur fünf verschiedene Vokallaute, die sich in den meisten indoeuropäischen Sprachen als /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ und /u/ wiedergeben lassen. (Unterschiede in Vokallänge und -qualität seien in dieser Diskussion außen vor ...


8

In most of your examples the vowel ä is an actual Umlaut, i.e. a changed vowel a or ā: Ärger relates to arg, https://www.dwds.de/wb/Ärger Hälfte relates to halb, https://www.dwds.de/wb/Hälfte Träne stems from Middle High German trān, Germanic *trahnu-, https://www.dwds.de/wb/Träne Käse stems from Latin cāseus, https://www.dwds.de/wb/Käse Lärm stems from ...


8

First of all, let's distinguish between the linguistic phenomenon (Germanic) umlaut (or i-mutation) and the grapheme umlaut diacritic. In German, these two concepts are very closely related, because letters with umlaut diacritics (ä, ö, ü) are almost always used to spell vowels resulting from i-mutations and rarely used for other words. All modern Germanic ...


7

Ä There's no obvious difference in pronouncing Ärzte or Ärmel. As for ätzend, the ä is slightly more "e-like" than the usual ä, as it is a short vowel. Ä is close in pronunciation to the a in that or cap - an a pronounced more "e-like". Ö Is pronounced like the u in purse or the e in Perth. EDIT: It is possible to practice the ö by forming an o with your ...


7

Proper nouns are not covered by orthographic rules, full stop. That is the essence when asking for why a given person or a given place is spelt the way they are. Excursion on the use of umlauts For normal words, the general rule is to have ü for most /y/* sounds, ö for most /ø/ sounds and ä for a certain portion of the /ɛ/ sound. Neither of these rules is ...


7

In other words, if I encounter a word containing "ae", "oe", or "ue", can I be sure that the correct way to write the word is with the appropriate umlaut? No, you can't. Counterexample: Oboe


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