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5

This can only be answered in context, as -- see Carsten's answer -- the names are not marked for case. If the previous sentence was something along the lines of "Peter traf seine alten Schulfreunde nach langer Zeit wieder", then Peter would normally be interpreted as the theme, or topic. In this sentence some information (rheme or comment) is given about ...


2

In einem nicht weiter spezifizierten Kontext wäre das normale ("by default") Verständnis des Satzes Natascha hat Peter früher gut gefallen nach meinem Sprachempfinden: (Wer:) Natascha hat (wem:) Peter früher gut gefallen. wobei der aktive Part (das logische Subjekt) Peter ist. Man kann den Sachverhalt aktivisch auch ausdrücken als (Wer:) Peter hat (...


11

The problem in analysing the sentence is that in modern German proper names are not inflected and we therefore cannot tell the cases by looking at them in isolation. Let us replace the names by personal pronouns to make the cases clear. This can be either Sie hat ihm gefallen. in which case he liked her (see also this question), or Ihr hat er ...


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