The German verb has to come second. The first position can be filled with whatever. Thus the phrase "gibt es" can totally be part of statements
Es gibt in Berlin gute Bäcker.
In Berlin gibt es gute Bäcker.
As the other answer already mentions, "Gibt es" is the order you'll find in questions.
Gibt es in Berlin gute Bäcker?
AND it can ...
Ich weiß nicht.
is used in colloquial language to express uncertainty, doubt and disagreement, usually when asked for an opinion on something.
For example, I wouldn't be surprised to witness the following dialogue:
(Two girls in a shop)
A: Was hältst du von diesem Kleid?
B: Ich weiß nicht... - (thinks about it briefly) - Wenn du das nimmst, ...
Ich werde tun is incorrect because there is an object missing.
A way to correct this is to add a prounoun, for example a das:
Das werde ich tun.
Now, in spoken German it is possible to omit a pronoun in first position. This gives us:
Werde ich tun.
This is called an ellipsis and is valid German, although mostly restricted to colloquial usage.
The secret is: Pronoun before noun
Kann Peter Klaus helfen?
Normal word order. Peter is subject, Klaus is object, so Peter helps Klaus.
Kannst du Klaus helfen?
Still normal word order. Technically pronoun before noun applies, but it doesn't matter anyway. Du is subject, Klaus is object, so you help Klaus.
Kannst du ihm helfen?
And again normal ...
First of all, it is important to note, that 'nicht' can either negate a complete sentence or a verb or a noun with a definite article.
If you negate the whole sentence, as in: the whole statement is false, 'nicht' wants to go to the last position in the sentence, as in:
Schläfst du schon? - Nein, ich schlafe noch nicht. (Sonst würde ich nicht antworten.)
The German Wikipedia article on Verberststellung (that is positioning of the verb before the subject) gives three examples for this syntactical order in subordinate clauses:
Hätte ich mehr Zeit gehabt, hätte ich einen kürzeren Brief geschrieben.
(Alternativ: Wenn ich mehr Zeit gehabt hätte, hätte ich...)
War der Auftritt ...
Neither sentence is wrong. German word order is rather flexible, and while there is a tendency to have the second part of a split verb at the end, it isn't always the case. Possible reasons for pulling it to the front include improved understandability (when the intervening part would be long) and putting emphasis on a specific part of the sentence.
In this ...
The sentence is correct. While it is much more common to have the verb at the end, in this particular case there is an emphasis on the need to return, while the destination is rather a side information. This can be expressed by using this word order.
You can find some background information on canoo.net. The technical term that applies here is that of a &...
los is a regular adjective meaning off (in the sense of unleashed or detached). The basic idiomatic expression using los is the following sentence:
Etwas ist los.
Something is unleashed/moving (figuratively: going on).
los does not become an adverb here as the sentence is simply assigning the attribute los to the subject etwas. los is an adjective used ...
What Thorsten Link wrote is correct, but I like to give another example on how to place the nicht. I give a bit too literal translations to emphasize it.
(And a note on Examen: it's Prüfung, always. Examen is the ancient god of Prüfungen, the final one after which you get your degree. But only for non-technical fields, where they still summon such gods.)
This grammar feature is called prepositional phrase in the Nachfeld, and it's not restricted to separable verbs (though it's easier to notice with separable verbs).
Basically, when you have a long and complex prepositional phrase, you can put it after the main sentence, and that means it comes after a separable prefix or the infinitive/participle group that ...
Transforming the following sentence:
Ich sah fünf Flugzeuge abheben.
to perfect yields:
Ich habe fünf Flugzeuge abheben sehen.
The rule is that if a perfect participle (Partizip II) follows an infinitive it takes the form of the infinitive too. So “gesehen“ becomes “sehen“.
“Ich habe fünf abhebende Flugzeuge gesehen“ is a correct sentence, but it is ...
The idea of keeping the finite verb and participles/infinitives together does not apply here, as the infinitive clause does not belong closely to the finite verb. It's an object.
Dann bekam er die Chance, mit einem Botaniker zusammen fünf Jahre lang durch Süd- und Mittelamerika zu reisen.
This is how you should write. Or speak. This is sound.
I wouldn't trust this TeKaMoLo rule too much. It is often "wrong". If anything, it is good advice but I can write down pages and pages and pages of examples where it does not apply.
So it is not a rule that is broken. It is a "most likely" scenario.
Generally, German word order follows this rule: "The more relevant the later"
Welcome to the wonderful German world of free word order and inserted relative clauses! So perfect that not even Germans do it right all the time (even if they're in the Spiegel).
in dem Wladimir Putin und Alexis Tsipras in Moskau vor die Presse traten
is a relative clause which can be turned into a main clause to read
Wladimir Putin und Alexis ...
To be precise, "Die kleine Raupe Nimmersatt" doesn't translate to "The very hungry caterpillar". The English title is the original one, and the German one is a translation.
I'd say the translator allowed himself a certain degree of freedom, as it is common in literature. "Nimmersatt" is a nice word to express "very hungry" very concisely. In fact, it goes ...
Think differently: It's not about placing gern "on either side" of the object, the basic rule is that adverbs that modify other parts of the sentence ("nicht", "auch", ...) are placed directly in front of the part they modify. So in "... gern Gemüse", gern applies specifically to Gemüse.
This is also true if an adverb modifies a verb. However, in a main ...
The short answer is: other than in the USA, where it is common to add to names of towns and other inhabited places an abbreviation to indicate the federal state, e.g.
this is not common in German speaking countries.
There are, though, traditional additions to names such as ...
In a German "Hauptsatz" (main clause), the flexed verb goes in the second position – counting grammatical units, not words.
Both of your examples follow this pattern:
[Es] [ist] [eine Katze].
[Manchmal] [ist] [es] [kalt].
Frequently, but not necessarily, the subject takes the first position in a sentence, like in your first example. But because ...
Both word orders are correct and only slightly differ in emphasis: Whatever you put first in this case, is slightly more focussed by the question (at least that’s my impression, even native speakers can disagree over this). Some examples in context:
Ich kann in Hamburg, München und Köln einen Hut kaufen. Aber: Kann ich in Berlin einen Hut kaufen? [...
Die Kommas gehören unabhängig von der Wortstellung dort nicht hin.
Dir hat der neue Film also nicht gefallen?
Also hat dir der neue Film nicht gefallen?
Der neue Film hat dir also nicht gefallen?
sind alle drei grammatikalisch richtig und vom Sinn her gleichwertig.
Das Wort „also“ stellt hier einen Bezug auf einen im Dialog
The reason they put the sentence in this order is a pun with a very common German proverb of unknown origin:
Was du heute kannst besorgen, das verschiebe nicht auf morgen.
The word order was adapted to meet rhyme metrics, which is often found in poems.
Es gibt zwei Sorten von Adjektivreihungen: gleichwertige und ungleichwertige.
Gleichwertige Adjektive sind solche, die unabhängig voneinander verwendet werden können. Keines bildet mit dem Substantiv eine Zusammensetzung und keines wird als »wichtiger« erachtet. Klassischerweise ist die Gesamtbeschreibung identisch mit der Summe ihrer Teile; man kann ...
The difference is not in meaning, but in emphasis.
Schön ist es hier = "Wow, nice place!"
This emphasizes the pleasantness of the place as opposed to other qualities, such as expensiveness of a restaurant (which might well go along with niceness).
Es ist schön hier = "This is a nice place."
This emphasizes the niceness as well, but not as ...
(1) Bitte mach das Fenster zu! / Bitte füll das Formular aus!
(2) Mach bitte das Fenster zu! / Füll bitte das Formular aus!
(3) Mach das Fenster bitte zu! / Füll das Formular bitte aus!
All are correct and even this is correct:
(4) Mach das Fenster zu, bitte! / Füll das Formular aus, bitte!
Mostly used are (2) and (3), then (1).
All versions are polite, ...
Same order. Usually one would not include the state, like "Heidelberg, Germany", because we don't have that many city names that exist multiple times. But if they do, you would write it in brackets:
Walldorf (Baden), Germany
You usually don't even include the whole state (Baden-Württemberg), but the informal region (Baden). But it would also be okay to ...
You already stated the rule: The dative object precedes the accusative object (not subject), except if the accusative object is a personal pronoun. In this case the pronoun goes first.
Ich verrate dem Anwalt ein Geheimnis.
Ich verrate ihm das.
(Because the demonstrative pronoun is usually emphasized, it would often be at position 1: Das verrate ich ihm....