67

You can't call it a need, since Switzerland dropped ß at the beginning of the 20th century and has, apparently, not yet collapsed. But ß does have a function. In intervocalic position, there is a triple opposition: Füße [fyːsə] Küsse [kʏsə] Düse [dyːzə] Here, ß and ss both stand for voiceless [s], with ß signalling a preceding long vowel and ss a ...


24

In Standard German, a phenomenon called terminal devoicing (Auslautverhärtung in German) affects the pronunciation of word-final (or more generally: morpheme-final) consonants. It leads to the merging of the phoneme pairs b–p, d–t, w–f, g–k and /z/–/s/ (a phoneme pair not reflected in orthography). These are typically pronounced as if the unvoiced letter ...


21

Your reference to ſz is somewhat misleading, since this is more a typographical aspect, how ß is represented, in the age of Unicode surely not a problem. From purely practical point of view, ß is a sort of convenience, like the uppercase of substantives. In reformed orthography it helps for pronounciation, and in general assists disambiguation: Masse (...


13

Tz indicates that the preceding vowel is short; z doesn’t (though this may still be the case for other reasons). Most other consonants are doubled in such a situation; z is different for historical reasons, and instead of zz we write tz. The same thing happens to k and ß: We write ck instead of kk and ss instead of ßß. This is § 3 of the official spelling ...


7

You can't talk about the pronunciation of »d« without talking about »t« too. Rule of thumb: In German the letter »d« is pronounced as [d] (voiced alveolar stop) like in these English words: down [daʊn] dash [dæʃ] sand [sænd] lid [lɪd] In German the letter »t« is pronounced as [tʰ] (aspirated voiceless alveolar stop) like in these English words: time [...


6

Hier ist eine Liste mit indogermanischen Worten, die mit ‘b’ beginnen. Hier das gesamte Wörterbuch. Es ist leider nicht sehr leserlich, aber besser als nichts. Freilich eine Menge Arbeit, das Ganze aufzuarbeiten; aber hier hast du zumindest einen guten Ansatz, um alle/viele Worte zu finden, die du suchst, und damit die nötige Ressource.


6

Drei Vorschläge, allerdings jeweils ziemlich "herbeikonstruiert" mit Deiner Idee des Diminutivs "-chen": die Stadt Aachen und Achen als Diminutiv zu A tauchen und Tauchen Kuchen und Kuhchen Eine Google-Suche nach Kuhchen fördert noch einige interessante Seiten zu Tage, so zum Beispiel eine Kuhchen benannte Plastik und das Buch "Volkstümliches in Ostpreußen"...


6

Ich glaube nicht, dass es so ein Minimalpaar gibt. Das liegt daran, dass - wie ich glaube - [χ] und [ç] Allophone desselben deutschen Phonems sind. Ob [χ] oder [ç] gesprochen wird, hängt von dem Vokal vor dem Frikativ ab, bzw davon, ob davor überhaupt ein Vokal steht oder nicht. Meiner Beobachtung nach ist es so, dass bei einem bestimmten Wort [χ] bzw. [ç] ...


6

They both end with the same /t/ sound, that's true. However, to my perception, Rat tends to be pronounced with a significantly longer a than Rad. So basically Rad /ʁat/ Rat /ʁa:t/ This is at least the case in more western standard German (Rhine/Ruhr) in compounds like Stadtrat /'ʃtatʁa:t/ vs Fahrrad /'faʁat/. The longer a-sound has the effect that the t-t ...


5

Stotterlaut itself is the sound you make when you stutter (literally stutter noise). This article mentions Nun ist d nicht nur Verschluß-, Dental-Laut, sondern wie die Erfahrung ergibt, bei häufiger Wiederholung geradezu ein Stotterlaut My translation: Now d is not only a plosive and dental sound, but as experience shows downright a stutter sound, when ...


5

Lenis consonants normally preceded by long vowels High German has a strong tendency that lenis consonants are preceded long vowels (or diphthongs, which count as long vowels in this regard). This is because short vowels followed by lenis consonants were lengthened, cf. Middle High German lësen vs. modern standard German lesen ‘to read’: lësen [ˈlɛsən] → ...


4

There is no standard dialect as you assume. German pronounciation heavily depends on the region you are in, and on the speaker — because people are taking their home dialect to the place where they work and live later on. To give two extreme examples on the d: In Säggsisch (Sächsisch; Saxon), there's one important pronouciation rule: ''Die Weijen besiejen ...


4

Those two sounds – word-initial and medial single s and the ending -ig – are probably the most volatile sounds in German pronunciation along with ch after light vowels. They both can be used as geographical origin indicators (although by themselves they cover too wide a region and need to be supplemented with additional indicators to discern a speaker’s ...


3

Im Studium haben wir es so gelernt, dass man ein vokalisches R [ɐ] in der unbetonten Silbe -er- und damit auch Vorsilben wie ver-,her-, etc. spricht. Dieses deckt sich mit diversen Linguistik Seiten: Der [ɐ]-Laut ist die vokalische Aussprachevariante für das . Das wird am Ende eines Wortes sowie in den Präfixen er-, ver- und zer- vokalisch ausgesprochen. ...


3

It's complicated. There is not just one German language. There are three standard variations of German. (The links will bring you to the corresponding wikipedia articles in English and German): German Standard German1 = deutsches Hochdeutsch2 Austrian Standard German = österreichisches Hochdeutsch Swiss Standard German = Schweizer Hochdeutsch These are ...


3

Again I'm on my quest to add some IPA to this site: How Bruder is pronounced was explained here, so I'm not going to repeat that. Now for mehr. In IPA you would write: [ˈmeːɐ] The difference is that in this case, we have a stressed e and not a schwa [ə] as in Bruder. [eː] is a vowel that is produced in the front part of the mouth, whereas [ə] is in ...


2

If an -r is the final letter of a word, the it is usually pronounced similar to an short "a". Mehr is no exception to that. Mutt(e)a, Brud(e)a, Wint(e)a, meea, voa, Uua.. The proper IPA symbol is different.


2

Actually no, but lots of Germans pronounce "ist" without the "t" at the end.Generally there is absolutely no difference. You can guess the meaning from the context like Er ist/isst ein Kind. Here it is clear that it has to be "ist". Er ist/isst eine Suppe. Now it is "isst", because usually you can't be a soup :D


2

There are two big problems with the global stop [ʔ]: Most speakers are not aware of speaking it, and they are not aware of hearing it. There is no letter (or combination of letters) that marks a global stop in a written word. I am pretty sure, that (1) is the reason for (2), but that doesn't help to solve this problem. The non-awareness of that consonant ...


2

German /d/ is normally voiceless. Voice is an optional feature that commonly occurs in Northern German if the /d/ is inbetween other voiced sounds (vowels, for instance). In Southern German, the optional voicing of /d/ is less common. The most perceptible feature between the optionally voiced /d/ and /t/ in Northern German is that the latter is aspirated. ...


1

The proper ("official") way to pronounce German words is normally found in dictionaries like "Der Duden". But there are regional differences for some sounds (when dialect speakers "try" to speak proper German). For example: I used to live in the South of Germany where people talk "Schwäbisch/swabian". So my s in sind ...


1

Ich glaube, dass die modernen deutschen Wörter, die auf -umpf enden, Erbwörter sind: stumpf (Adjektiv) der Stumpf (Substantiv) der Strumpf (Substantiv) der Rumpf (Substantiv) Beispiel der Stumpf: mittelhochdeutsch: stumpf, stumpfe althochdeutsch: stumph Das Etymologiewörterbuch von Duden vermutet, dass dieses Wort eine gemeinsame indogermanische ...


1

Sind das Kandidaten? abōn -> Affe ablu -> Apfel: mhd apfel, ahd apful, germ. *apluz idg. *ab(e)l Wiktionary blou -> Floh (laut Wiktionary aber von fliehen)


Only top voted, non community-wiki answers of a minimum length are eligible