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Firstly, The rule is, when a noun and a pronoun occur together in a subordinate clause, then the shorter of the two comes first It's pronouns before nouns. But that's not a rule, only a tendency, and another tendency says subject before objects. Both variants are okay. Secondly, when two infinitive forms come together in a subordinate clause, the finite ...


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(Note: I know these as modal particles, not focus particles -- that might help for googling.) In the second example, auch serves as a modifier with the meaning nicht nur, as you rightly observed. It can modify every noun phrase by immediately following it. However, in its usage as a particle, it does not mean nicht nur, and has restricted positions within ...


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The first one can be changed into small scope like this: Ich konnte meinen Vater gestern rechtzeitig am Flughafen und dank deiner Hilfe auch pünktlich am Bahnhof abholen. now the "abholen" also counts for "Flughafen". The "auch" only rules "pünktlich am Bahnhof". The second can be made general (verb-oriented): Nicht weinen, ich schenke dir dieses ...


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If an auch at the beginng of a sentence refers to the whole sentence, it must occupy position 1 and the verb must follow: Auch konnte ich meinen Vater gestern dank deiner Hilfe pünktlich am Bahnhof abholen. Whereas in the case of Auch ich konnte meinen Vater gestern dank deiner Hilfe pünktlich am Bahnhof abholen. the auch refers to Ich: "I too could.....


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In monoclausal structures, the order at the end is descending. als das Haus gebaut3 worden2 ist1 The perfect auxiliary ist governs the passive auxiliary worden, which governs the past participle gebaut. Yet the order is exactly the opposite. Some similar examples: ob man das Problem lösen3 können2 wird1 dass die Steuern gesenkt3 werden2 müssen1 ...


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Usually the more important stuff comes first. In Deswegen bin ich krank. the focus in on the cause of being sick. Warum warst du denn heute nicht in der Schule? Ich habe verdorbene Muscheln gegessen. Deswegen bin ich krank. In Ich bin krank deswegen. the focus is on the effect. Warum machst du so ein Theater wegen eines Bienenstichs? ...


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