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4

There are subordinate clauses in which the verb doesn't come at the end. This is often the case when the subordinate clause is not introduced by a conjunction (uneingeleiteter Nebensatz). Example with verb in first position (Uneingeleiteter konditionaler Nebensatz): Kommt der Bus nicht, gehen wir zu Fuß. which is equivalent to: Wenn der Bus nicht ...


2

Actually, there is no definite rule for the placement of "aber". It's much more a matter of frequency and of "feeling". So you could either say: "Ich möchte Deutsch lernen, aber es ist schwer" or "Ich möchte Deutsch lernen, es ist aber schwer". No difference in meaning and emphasis, as @Nick pointed out above. Your case is a bit more complicated because ...


0

In contrast to your sentence, the second variant does not use "aber" as conjunction, as it's in a separate sentence. So in the latter there is no need to have it at the beginning.


-1

As to my perception, the addressee (du) normally enjoys more reverence than other enumerated people i.e. 'Du und Franz'. But in case 'Franz' is an honorable/honored or even an adorable/adored person (the speaker's idol, the addressee's sweetheart, a coach, to whom the two look up, ...) so that it's obvious or at least understandable both to the speaker and ...


8

I would use neither, as they both (at least in such a short example) sound weird. My preferred way of phrasing this would be Du bist mit Franz einkaufen gegangen, or (if you want to emphasise what Franz did) Franz ist mit dir einkaufen gegangen. Otherwise I'd put the 'more relevant' person first: that would be the focus of the previous sentence. If you're ...


4

It is neither "Du und er" nor "er und Du". The German expression for that would be "ihr beide". Comparing "Franz und Du" and "Du und Franz", it depends what do you want to emphasize. If you say "Du und Franz, Ihr habt euch doch früher immer so gut verstanden", the question behind is: "what kind of problem do you have with him?", Franz not being present. ...


3

You will find these kind of sentences in a colloquial style conversation. The "heute" is like afterthought, added to the sentence that you already said (Ich habe sehr viel gesehen), so can no longer take it back to make the grammar correct, which would of course be: Ich habe heute sehr viel gesehen. So, don't use it in a test or such ;-)


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